Healthcare & Medicine

Flach Cards Collections

The Nursing Profession

2016-07-19 • 0 Cards

Trauma Decision Tree

GCS less than or equal to 13, Systolic BP less than 90 mmHg (Adult) less than 60 mmHg (Peds), q Respiratory rate less than 10 or greater than 29 (less than 20 in infant age less than one year) or need for ventilatory support, 2 or more proximal long-bone fractures, Amputation proximal to wrist or ankle, hest wall instability or deformity (e.g., flail chest), Crushed, degloved, mangled, or pulseless extremity, Open or depressed skull fracture, Penetrating injuries to head, neck, torso, or extremities proximal to elbow and knee, Pelvic fracture, Paralysis (spine), High Risk Auto Crash, Intrusion (including roof) greater than 12 in. occupant site; greater than 18 in. any site, Ejection (partial or complete) from vehicle, Death in same passenger compartment

2016-02-27 • 29 Cards

CVS - Lec 1

The heart is made up of ____ pumps in series?, What's the low-pressure pump?, What's the high-pressure pump?, What do arteries do during systole?, What do arteries do during diastole?, What's the property of arteries that maintains pressure for blood flow @ diastole?, Can you feel the pulse @ capillaries?, What's the order of pulsation from big to none?, Where do pressure drops more? Large arteries or arterioles?, Why do pressure drops more in the arteriole?, What do arterioles serve as controlling the blood flow?, Branching of the blood vessels leads to a _______ cross-sectional area in the capillaries? Large or small?, How does the velocity calculate?, What is the velocity in large x-sectional area blood vessels?, Why does velocity the slowest in capillaries?

2016-02-08 • 91 Cards

M12 - Tolerance and Autoimmunity

Where's central tolerance happening?, What're the 3 outcomes of central tolerance?, What's the end result of negative selection @ central tolerance?, For T reg CD4+, what distinguish them?, How does negative selection in the thymus work?, What are the 3 requirements for negative selection or deletion to occur for T cells?, What transcription factor responsible for presenting tissue-specific self antigens on thymic epithelial cells for negative selection?, Where do peripheral tolerance happen?, What are the 3 outcomes for peripheral tolerance for T cells?, Two ways to get ANERGY of autoreactive T cells:, Why would inhibitory receptors (CTLA-4/ PD-1) bind to B7?, What's the activating TCR?, What are the inhibitory receptors on T cells?, What do inhibitory receptors bind?, Where do most Treg come from?

2016-02-04 • 38 Cards

M17- Sepsis

What's the LOCAL hallmarks of inflammation?, What's the SYSTEMIC hallmarks of inflammation?, SIRS 4 presentations are?, What can cause SIRS?, What's the definition of Sepsis?, Severe sepsis means?, Septic shock means?, Which Gram bacterial infections is more frequent in sepsis?, What's sepsis mortality in 28d?, What's sepsis mortality in 1 year?, When should Antibiotics administer to sepsis?, Which cytokine is sepsis marker?, The 4 pillars supporting cytokine storm causes sepsis?, What's the bystander damage of inflammation?, What's the 2 good things about complement activation in sepsis?

2016-02-04 • 23 Cards

M11 - Immunotherapy

What's the form of active immunization?, What's the pro for vaccine?, What's the cons for vaccine?, What's the form of passive immunization?, WHat's the pro for passive immune?, What's the Con of passive immune?, What's in vaccine?, What's the reaction of live attenuated (weakened) vaccines?, Pro of live attenuated vaccines?, Cons of live attenuated vaccines?, Contraindication of live attenuated vaccines?, Examples of live vaccines?, Reaction of dead vaccines?, Pro of dead vaccines?, Cons of dead vaccines?

2016-02-04 • 69 Cards

M3 - Lymphoid Tissues and Organs

What's the 1st level of defense?, What's the 2nd level of defense?, What's the final 3rd level of defense?, What kind of production of lymphocytes in adaptive?, Where can you find immature lymphoid progenitor cells?, Lymphocytes proliferate in secondary organs are Ag-dependent, what about lymphocytes proliferate in primary organs?, How many lobe do a thymus have?, What are the smaller bubbles in thymus microscopic tissue? Are they the lobes?, Each lobule has an outer cortex, it stains darkly/lightly?, Each lobule has an inner medulla that stain?, The coloration of cortex vs medulla reflect the density of what?, Is the medullar continuous with other medulla within the lobe?, A thin capsule of dense connective tissue surrounds the lobules and project thin perpendicular things into the cortex, what are those called?, The septa provide route of entry and exit for what?, Is there lymphoid nodules in the thymus?

2016-02-04 • 101 Cards

M3 - Lymphoid Tissues and Organs

2016-02-04 • 0 Cards

M10 - Ab-mediated effector functions

What's the function of Fab region?, What's the function of Fc region?, What's the valence of IgG, IgE, IgD?, What's the valence of IgA?, How many binding sites does IgM have?, What's the relationship of Ka, Kd, with binding affinity?, IgM can compensate low affinity binding with epitope by what ?, Crosslinking of Ab with insoluble particles is called?, Crosslinking of Ab with soluble substances is called?, Examples of agglutination particles?, Toxin and Toxoid utilize what feature of antigen binding?, Which Ig is mainly in Blood?, Which Ig mainly in mucosa?, Which Ig cross placenta?, Which Ig in newborn circulation from mom's milk?

2016-02-04 • 97 Cards

M9 - B cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation

What's the chemokine receptor on naive B cells?, What's the chemokine receptor on naive T cells?, Where do naive B cells home to?, What happen to the CXCR5 receptor on B cells once they are in the follicle?, What is the presenting cell for B cells?, How to FDC pick up microbial antigens?, How do naive B cell encounter microbial antigens?, Where do BCR bind?, To increase BCR:Ag avidity, what else interact with each other?, CR2 has no signaling domain, what then?, BCR itself has no signaling function, what then?, What's another way to activate B cell besides CR2/CD19?, Which 2 mechanisms increase BCR avidity to Antigen?, What are the antigens for T-dependent Ag?, What's the downstream signal transduction after BCR + CR2/TLR (a lot of things)...?

2016-02-04 • 69 Cards

M8-T cell-mediated immunity

What's cell-mediated immunity(CMI) of adaptive immune system mainly combating?, Where can you find microbes when inside our cells?, What are the types of effector T cells in CMI?, T cells that interact with B cells to promote production of high-affinity Ab to fight extracellular bacteria infection are?, T cells that interact with B cells to promote production of high-affinity Ab to fight extracellular helminthes infection are?, T cells that stimulate defensin(antimicrobial peptides) production and recruit neutrophils to fight extracellular bacterial and fungal infection are?, Which T helper subsets CD4 T cell differentiated into is determined by 2 things:, In Th1 cell differentiation, which cytokines play role in upregulating things?, In Th2 differentiation, mast cells and eosinophils secrete what cytokine to activate?, In Th17 differentiation, 4 cytokines secreted by DC:peptide are?, Where do CD4+ T cell differentiation begin? Where it's reinforced?, All CD4+ T subsets are mainly function as?, What do Th1 cells help?, How do Th1 cells help macrophage?

2016-02-03 • 46 Cards

M7- T cell-mediated immunity

DC's role is patrol. What happen after DC capture Ag?, What's the "maturation" of DC?, What's the cytokine that's important for T cell proliferation/clonal expansion?, If DC capture Ag from outside (extracellular), what MHC class the peptide will be loaded?, During maturation of DC, 4 things are up-regulated on the surface., Stroma of lymph node send which chemokine to attract migration of DC?, Where do immature DC reside?, How do DC constantly sample the environment for microbes?, If DC themselves get infected by viruses, what type of MHC will it present?, What's signal 1 for T cell activation?, What's signal 2 for T cell activation?, TCR itself is not transduction signal down on T cells, who are?, What's the gap between APC and TCR called?, T cells always have CD28, but it can't get activated at will, why?

2016-02-03 • 47 Cards

M6-B&T cell maturation

What're the 2 primary(central/generative) lymphoid organs in human?, What's the name of the lineage for lymphocyte maturation?, What's the precursor cells that give rise to B and T lymphocytes? Where is it located?, Two criteria for T and B cell to survive., What's the goal for lymphocyte maturation cell division?, Sequence of B cell maturation (names)., What is expressed on Pre-B?, What's BTK role?, Failure to signal through pre-BCR will result in (e.g. XLA)?, What's on immature B cells?, What's on mature B?, Compare the IgM and IgD on mature B cell., Sequence of T cell maturation., What do we call the developing T cells in thymus?, What's one component of pre-TCR in pre-T cell?

2016-02-03 • 50 Cards


What's Congenital(primary) immunodeficiencies?, Patients with congenital I.D. are susceptible to?, What's the cure for congenital I.D. mostly?, Why congenital I.D. @ infancy?, B cell deficiency is prone to pyogenic bacterial infections, why?, T cell deficiency is prone to which type of infection?, Why SCID affect both arms of immunity?, What's the chest x-ray presentation of X-SCID?, What's the molecular cause of X-SCID?, Which cytokine plays big role in early T cell maturation?, Why X-SCID also have defective humoral immunity?, In X-SCID, defective NK cells maturation is due to lack of which cytokine?, Molecular cause of ADA or PNP deficiency?, What's the consequence of ADA/PNP deficiency?, What's a newer treatment for ADA/PNP deficiency?

2016-02-03 • 44 Cards


3 Hypersensitivity rxn Ag are:, What types of HSS involved in IgM, IgG?, 3 ways to be exposed to allergic Ag?, First exposure of Type I mainly to?, What do we call a sensitized individual?, What's the Ab against Ag in Type I?, What are the cell-mediated immunity involved in Type I that happens @ lymph node?, Where do IgE home to?, Where do IgE high-affinity bind to mast cell?, What's the mechanism of IgE binding to mast cell Fc receptor?, What happen when subsequent exposure to same Ag?, Mediator actions, What's the main signaling domain@FceRI to trigger mast cell release?, Do mast cell need to proliferate after Ag crosslinking?, Which mediators are pre-formed (@granules)?

2016-02-03 • 64 Cards