Anatomy and Physiology II: Test 2

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85 Cards. Created by Kendall ().
The Heart

Label this:


A. Sinoatria(SA) node (pacemaker). B. Antrioventricular (AV) node C.antrioventicular (AV) bundle D. Bundle branches E. Subendocardial conducting network

Label this:


A. Right atrium B. Tricuspid valve C. Left pulmonary veins D. Mitral (bicuspid) valve E. Left ventricle

Define endocardium

endothelial membrane that lines the interior of the heart

Define parietal layer(of serious pericardium)

lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium. Attaches to the large arteries exiting the heart

Define Myocardium

layer of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle

Define Epicardium

the visceral layer of the serous pericardium

Define bradycardia

a heart rate below 60 bpm

Define Cardiac Reserve

the difference between resting and maximal cardiac output


a heart rate over 100 bmp

Define vagal tone

internal biological process referring to the activity of the vagus nerve, under resting conditions, both autonomic divisions continuously send impulses to the SA node, but the dominant influence is inhibitory

Which blood vessels supply the myocardium with blood?

Coronary Arteries (veins?)

Which ATP producing organelle is abundant in cardiac muscle cells? Is it more or less reliant on oxygen as a result?

mitochondria, more reliant

What is an anastomosis?

A union of joining of nerves, blood vessels, or lymphatics

What is congestive heart failure (CHF)?

condition in which the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that circulation is inadequate to meet tissue needs

What tissue replaces cardiac tissue that has been injured by a myocardial infarct?

non contractile scar tissue

Do the left and right ventricles pump the same amount of blood or different amounts?

equal amounts

What are auricles in relation to the heart and what is their purpose?

small, wrinkled, protruding appendages that increase the atrial volume somewhat

what region of the brainstem are the autonomic regulatory centers for the heart rate located?

Adrenal medulla (medulla oblongata, ventrolateral medulla?)

What would happen to blood circulation if the aorta and pulmonary trunk were switched around in terms of which ventricle the opened up into?

The right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk, which routes the blood to the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta. So if they got switched, blood could not circulate properly because the pulmonary trunk is much smaller and is not able to withstand as much stress

What causes normal heart sounds?

heart valves closing. First round closing is AV valves, second sound closing is SL valves