The notion that everything is predetermined by a chain of cause and effect.cause not necessarily intrinsic to the object.The determinist approach proposes that all behavior is caused by preceding factors and is thus predictable. The causal laws of determinism form the basis of science.whereas free will states we make choices to do things.
What are the various types of determinism?
biological determinism: refers to the idea that all human behaviour is innate, determined by genes, brain size or other biological attributes. Environmental determinism: also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism. It is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories. Basically how the physical environment affects social and cultural development.sociocultural determinism: theory that social interactions and constructs alone determine individual behaviour. The cultural aspect of it states that our emotional and behavioural patterns are formed and molded by the cultre we are placed in.psychic determinism:Theorises that all mental processes are not spontaneous but are determined by the unconscious or preexisting mental complexes. Nothing happens by chance. quantum determinism: The idea that every event is necessitated by antecendent events and conditions together with the laws of nature.
What are the four major arguments against determinism?
- predictive failures in science: scientists are able to assert a whole bunch of things but they cant perfectly prove everything in the world and have results from one experiment occur again in another replicated study.2. logical contradiction in choosing to believe in determinism: if your ascerting that you believe in determinism because its your choice, than that suggests their is an element of free will.3. repercussions for immorality and diffusion of responsibility: if everything was predetermined, we wouldnt need to punish people as everything someone does is due to a preceding event causing them to act the way they do.4. indertiminism demonstrated at atomic level: we have scientific evidence suggesting we cant determine things.
What are the four major arguments against free will?
Free will: the ability to act at ones own discretion, with events not being predetermined. Arguments against free will:Accumulation of scientific evidence regarding cause-effect mechanisms. Disconcerting if immoral behaviour is enacted according to free will....if things are free will than its scary that people do have responsibility for their actions. Reasonable expectancy that events follow lawful and logical patterns.
the thesis that free will is compatible with determinism. Because free will is typically taken to be a necessary condition of moral responsibility and some human actions such as reflexes are responsible due to determinism.
Describe the view of truth advocated by Pythagoras?
Believed that numbers were not only the way to truth, but truth itself.Through mathematics, one could attain harmony and live an easier life.We find truth through the application of maths.Mathematical notion of absolute truth.Pythagorian dualism: physical world overlaid by abstract world that is rule based and impacts physical world.
what is the Socrates method for discerning truth through questioning
Thinking and exercising logic by way of questioning and dialogue.Distill answers from progressive series of questions.More accurate hypotheses developed by eliminating contradictions (deductive process we use todayVirtue more important than wealth, knowledge is virtuous but ignorance is not.You can distil the truth by questioning and questioning and once you get to a point where you cant ask anymore, thats the closest to the truth you are going to get.
describe Plato's perspective on truth
_ Well represented in historical record _ Theory of forms and allegory of the cave: Senses poor basis for reasoning as visible world is an imperfect shadow of an absolute reality _ Advocate of rationalism, the process of basing worldview on reasoning _ Discern truth through intuition and deduction