9th grade histoy exam (Chapter 29 Europe and North America)

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32 Cards. Created by Paul ().

al Qaeda

Islamist terrorist organization that launched a series of attacks against U.S.

arms race

a struggle between nations to gain an advantage in weapons

Bay of Pigs invasion

unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by a secretly trained force, which

Berlin airlift

a massive effort to supply West Berlin by air after the Soviets blockaded it

Boris Yeltsin

leader of the republic of Russia who favored more radical change than

Cold War

a post-World War II era of open hostility and high tension between the United States and the Soviet Union


a policy of resisting Soviet aggression to contain the spread of communism


a youth movement that rebelled against mainstream American society

Cuban missile crisis

a tense standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union


reduced tension between the superpowers


the development of or maintenance of military power to deter an attack

ethnic cleansing

elimination of an ethnic group through killing or forced emigration


"openness," a willingness to discuss the problems of the Soviet Union

hydrogen bomb

an immensely destructive weapon powered by nuclear fusion


a system of networks that connects computers around the world

iron curtain

Winston Churchill's term for the division of Europe created by Soviet

Marshall Plan

a massive program of U.S. economic aid to help Western Europe make a rapid recovery from the war and remain politically stable

Martin Luther King Jr.

leader of a civil rights campaign that exposed racial injustice and won reforms

Mikhail Gorbachev

Soviet leader who came to power in 1985 and made changes in the nation's economy and government


North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance between the United States, Canada, and Western Europe designed to counter Soviet power in Europe