Basic O&M

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96 Cards. Created by Danielle ().
Task Analysis and Vocabulary

Grid Patterns

Fan, Spiral, Up and Back Vertical, Grid, Expanding Box, Side-to-Side

Direction Taking (Parallel Alignment)

  1. Student places shoulder and side of his body against a wall, parallel alignment 2. Student proceeds forward, projecting a straight line of travel forward

Squaring Off (Perpendicular Alignment)

  1. Student places back, with two or more body parts, against the wall to help project a straight line of travel (perpendicular to the wall) 2. Using the wall as a point of reference, the student projects a straight line of travel into open space, away from the wall

Trailing a Wall

  1. Student faces desired direction of travel, should be parallel to the wall or surface being trailed 2. The arm nearest the wall or surface being trailed should be positioned at a 45-degree downward angle, extending at the elbow and with the palm facing downward 3. Trailing hand is position so that the fingers are slightly bent with the palm and fingers cupped and the finger close together and pointing toward the ground, thumb tucked in 4. Pinkie and ring finger are placed against the surface to be trailed, using light pressure 5. Trailing arm needs to remain far enough in front of the body so that the arm arrives first, protecting the body from bumping into obstacles

Basic Guide Technique

  1. If the student requests assistance, the guide may give the student a verbal cue such as, "Would you like to take my arm?" or the guide may touch the back of the student's hand with the back of her hand 2. The student grasps the guide's arm with his hand in a C shape, similar to holding a soda can (a. the student holds the guide's arm just above the elbow (right hand to left arm and vice versa) and is positioned a half-step behind the guide, facing in the same direction; b. the student's left shoulder should be aligned behind the guide's right shoulder or vice versa. Together, the guide and the student should take up the space of 1 1/2 people; c. The guide needs to make sure the student is holding onto her arm with a secure grip, but not too tight) 3. The guide's guiding arm should be related down by her side rather than bent 4. The student should maintain his guiding arm close to his body, forming a 90 degree angle with his elbow (depending on guide's and student's height modifications may be made)

Hines Break

Technique used to accept, correct, or refuse assistance from an individual trying to provide help as a guide

Changing/Switching Sides

  1. While the student and guide continue walking forward, the student grasps the guide's arm with his free hand just above his current grip (a. can be performed while moving or stationary) 2. The student releases the initial grip and moves that hand toward the guide's other arm, lightly trailing their fingers along the guide's back until the opposite arm is reached 3. The student's grip on the side from which he is transferring is released, and his hand trails to the opposite arm. The student then assumes the proper grip just above the elbow on the other side of the guide's body (student does not release grip on the original arm until his hand placement on the switched arm is in proper position and secure)

Narrow Passage

  1. The guide will move her guiding arm behind and toward the small of her back 2. With the guide's arm in this position, the student slides his hand down the guide's arm to the guide's wrist while stepping behind the guide and extending his arm (a. student should be walking one full step behind the guide with their arm extended; student can place free hand on the guide's shoulder to confirm single-file alignment) 3. After clearing the narrow passageway, the guide returns her arm to her side and the student moves back into basic guide technique

Changing/Reversing Directions

  1. The guide can verbally state "Change direction" 2. Student releases his grip and turns 90 degrees toward the guide. The guide also turns 90 degrees toward the student. Contact is maintain throughout the turn to prevent disorientation and provide a point of reference. Once the student and guide are facing each other, the guide initiates contact with the back of her free hand for the student to grasp the free arm, then releases the original grasp 3. The student and guide both turn another 90 degrees away from each other to face the opposite direciton of travel, completing a fulll 180 degree turn 4. Once facing the opposite direction, the student resumes his grasp above the elbow and the student and guide reestablish basic guide position

Navigating/Negotiating Doors

  1. As the guide and student approach the door, the guide notifies the student on which side the hinges are and if the door is a "push" or "pull" (switching sides if needed to where the student is on the side of the hinges) 2. The guide and student move into narrow passage technique 3. If the door is closed, the guide pushes it open, the student will catch the door with their free hand and will continue to hold the door open until both the guide and the student have cleared the door 3. If the door is not self-closing, the guide will need to verbally request that the student close the door behind him. 4. Resume basic guide technique

Negotiating Stairs with a Guide

  1. The guide verbally notifies the student that they are approaching stairs and whether they are going up or down 2. The guide pauses at the edge of the first step 3. Before ascending or descending the stairs, the guide makes sure the student is ready and that the guide and student are side-by-side and perpendicular to the first step, feet facing forward 4. Guide takes the first step 5. Student follows one step behind the guide 6. Guide pauses by drawing her guide arm forward at a landing or at the completion of the stairs 7. At the landing, the guide and student resume basic guide technique

General Seating

  1. Guide approaches desire chair from the front or the side 2. The guide tells the student where he is in relation to the chair and slowly guides him up to the chair 3. Guide places her hand on the back or the side of the chair and student slides his hand down the guide's arm to contact the chair 4. Student uses back of hand to do a quick sweep of the seat prior to sitting 5. Allow student to seat himself 6. Guide should tell student if there is a table nearby and the position of the table in relation to the student 7. Allow student to stand up on their own, guide assists when asked 8. Once standing and with good balance, reestablish contact with guide

Auditorium Seating

  1. Guide pauses at the appropriate row 2. Student aligns himself alongside the guide to allow for lateral movement, guide should closest to the row of seats (switching sides if necessary) 3. Guide initiates lateral movement into the row 4. Student uses free hand to lightly trail the back of the seats directly in front of him 5. Guide stops at the appropriate seat and positions the student in front of his designated seat 6. Student releases graps of the guide and with the back of his legs, squares off against the edge of the seat 7. Student uses back of hand to clear the seat prior to sitting down 8. To exit, the guide reestablishes contact with the student as they rise out of their seats, switching places if necessary to allow the guide to laterally move first out of the aisle 9. Student resumes proper guide position, guide initiates lateral movement down the row to exit, and they sidestep out the row together

Lower Protection

  1. With the back of the hand facing outward and the palm facing toward the body, the hand is lowered in a diagonal position across the waist and toward the thigh on the opposite side of the body 2. While the hand and arm are positioned across the body, the student extends them outward abou 8-12 inches 3. Fingers should be held together and relaxed, and slightly curved back toward the body, with the thumb tucked in 4. Student continues walking forward in this position until he believes he is clear of all waist or lower-level obstacles

Upper Protection

  1. With the palm of the hand facing outward and away from the student and with the fingers held together, the student raises his arm up to shoulder height and moves it across and toward the opposite side of his body. Fingertips extend just beyond the shoulder on the opposite side 2. While the hand is elevated just above shoulder level, the student extends it outward about 8-12 inches in front of his face bent at the elbow at about 120 degrees 3. Student continues walking forward in this position until he believes he is clear of all head-level obstacles

Accessible Pedestrian Signal

Device that provides information (audible, vibrotactile, or both) accessible to pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired about when a pedestrian walk cycle at an intersetion begins

Core Curriculum

General education curriculum that all students are expected to master, including: reading, writing, language arts, science, mathematics, and social studies

Expanded Core Curriculum

Concepts and skills beyond the general eduation core curriculum that often require specialized instruction for students who are blind or visually impaired to compensate for decresed opportunities to learn incidentally by observing others. The nine domains are: compensatory access, sensory efficiency, assistive technology, orientation and mobility, independent living, social interaction, recreation and leisure, career education, and self-determination


Techniques used to systematically explore an environment independently or with support from another person providing verbal desctiption or physical assistance


Safely and efficiently getting from one point to another, or the motor component of purposeful movement