geo final

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186 Cards. Created by Elyssa ().



Fluvial System

the processes associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them

Valley Formation

valley widened due to (1)River Incision + Mass Movement + Runoff (2)Glaciation (3)Deflation (4)Karstification (5)Volcanic Activity (6)Tectonics

deflation (in valley formation)

wind removing material from the land surface --> widening of valley




VALLEY WIDENING- parallel erosion, width of valley increases as cycle of ersion progresses, paired with downcutting because floor also lenghtens

Headward Erosion/ Nickpoint Migration

VALLEY LENGTHENING- widening of valley by erosion along the very top edge- sheets of water enter the canyon and move nickpoint back (away from water)

Relief (DB erosion rates)

steepness --> the steeper the basin, the more erosion that occurs

Climate (DB erosion rates)

vegetation, runoff, weathering processes impact erosion rates

Materials (DB erosion rates)

aka paired terraces- leaving behind old flood plain deposits from rivers at the side of the valley

Sediment Yield

measures basin erosion rates, SY- sediment volume or time/ area of basin (effective method but doesn’t show the whole picture- erosion is not uniform)


any sediment in transfer- can be solid or dissolved

Solid Load

(1) bed load (particles rolled or bounced along substraid) (2)suspended load- small enough to stay up when transferred (3)rafted load (floating sediment- ex: uprooted tree, ice, etc)

Dissolved Load

dissolved material, espcially ions from weathering, that are carried in a slution by a stream


largest particle that can be transported (how energetic is the stream?),

Hulstrom Diagram

how fast do particles need to move to transport material? Top line- needed v to start movement, Bottom line- v needed to stop movement. More energy to start moving than to stop


bundles of particles (often with clay materials)

Formation during transport

things are ripped out of formation, vary by grain size, rounding, sorting (older particles are rounded and smaller in size than original)

Grain composition during transport

in a sed system, as transport procedes, rock fragments are broken down (dominated with feldspar in sed systems)

Sediment during transport

changes in composition, texture, roundness, sorting, grain size, maturity, tec