Nutrition Mid-term 1

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81 Cards. Created by Melissa ().
Chapters 1-4: Introduction Digestion/Absorption Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins and amino acid
 
Term  
Definition

Wasting

Breaking down body tissue( muscle & organ) for use of protein when its lacking from your diet

Indispensable amino acids

Amino acids that the body cannot make at all or enough of to meet physiological needs therefore must come from diet. aka "essential"

Dispensable amino acids

made by the body if it has enough nitrogen, not needed to come from diet. aka "non essential"

Conditionally dispensable amino acids

Normally made in the body, but they become indispensable ( not made) in cases such as critical illness.

Proteins we consume are broken down into what three categories

single amino acids, dipeptides, or tripeptides

Peptide bond

the bond between two amino acids formed when a corboxyl group joins an amino group and releasing water.

Di& Tri peptide

Two or three amino acids joined by a peptide bond

Oligopeptide & polypeptide

Oligo= 4-10 Poly= 10+

What determines the function and interaction of a protein

its 3-D shape formed from its chain of amino acids.

Hemoglobin

Oxygen carrying protein in red blood cells= 4 heme groups 4 globin polypeptide chains

Hydrophilic Amino Acids

electrically charged and attached to the charged ends of water molecules. WATER LOVING AMINO ACIDS

Hydrophobic amino acids

electrically neutral and don't interact with water, WATER FEARING AMINO ACIDS

Disulphide Bridge

Bond between sulfur components in 2 sulfur containing amino acids that stabilize a proteins structure

What factors affect the stabilization of proteins causing them to denature or lose their shape?

Heat, alcohol, acid, alkaline, and agitation

Denaturation

altering the 3D shape of a protein, protein unfolds. Ex.cooking an egg, is denaturation but is the first step to breaking down protein for digestion

Functions of protein in our body ( 8)

  • act as enzymes - transport oxygen etc. - structure
  • act as hormones -channel and pump v& M -make antibodies to protect us -maintain fluid balance - & acid balance

Collagen

Most abundant and fibrous protein foundation of bones, teeth, structures blood vessels

Keratin

water insoluble fibrous protein in hair, nails, and outer skin layer

Motor Proteins

convert food to physical work by converting energy. They divide cells, contract muscles and sperm swimming

Antibodies

Blood proteins that attack and inactivate bacteria and viruses causing infection, once they are formed they circulate your body to protect it.