Chapter 1, new and old worlds.
old world-Indians held intimate relationship with nature
conflicts with religion in England-fled to america
new world-missionaries wanted to save souls-corrupted America and Indians, caused wars
Christianity was the main religion, thought Indians ignorant, wanted to convert them
New world slavery shattered African American religions
Native American response to missionary efforts.
Virginian colonies failed
Puritans from Masachussetes colonies had better luck, mostly ignored Indians
Catholic Jesuits from Maryland had the better luck-related christianity to the Indian's beliefs
Slave religion in early colonies.
when brought over, religion was mostly lost
not allowed to practice beliefs
did not convert to christianity in fear of rebellion
Pre-contact native american life.
wealthy Indians had slaves, many clothes, and lots of food.
Nature was a part of everyday life, and therefore so was the spiritual world.
For the Indians, the ecosystem depended upon a strong relationship with the spirits.
Western technology and "civilization" messed up this balance.
Europe during New World Exploration.
roman vs. catholic church
Religious rivalry in England.
Wealth of merchants supported colonists’ journey to America
Race for the empire began. Spanish, Portugal and Colonists
royal charters and indentured servants?
French vs. Spanish approaches to missions.
French: patient, more missionary, lived with Indians
Spanish: violent, used force with military, brought Indians to them, wanted to colonize, not really convert, forced indians to speak spanish
Sojourner Truth's religious views.
influenced by her mother-used Christianity and God as means of escape
Sojourner saw God as a helpful and a positive factor that one could rely on when in need.
God valued honesty and would judge them for theft and dishonesty even in the worst of conditions.
Iroquois Confederacy and concept of "consent of the governed."
The people express their issues and problems to the Lords, who then express these issues through the Confederacy at council meetings.
When deciding upon important issues, all business is conducted by the two combined bodies of Confederate Lords.
1. Questions are first passed to the Mohawk and Seneca Lords,
2. then Oneida and Cayuga.
3. Final judgment is then made by the Firekeepers.
Women's role in Iroquois Constitution.
had the choice on who would be a part of the Council.
they were able to get a person off the council
The women had the choice on who was elected in and who can stay.
Women own the land and soil
The noble women can correct and admonish the holders of their titles only if they attend the Council.
When a Lordship title becomes vacant, the women can hold a council and elect a new one.
Key elements of Puritanism in the American colonies.
The Puritans settled in America to create a world for people like them and only them.
They had no interest in other people from other faiths and backgrounds. In the early stages of the 17th century the majority of colonists in the New England area was Puritan.
They all lived strict lives that influenced everything they did because of their faith in God.
Moved to colonies to create an only-puritan gov. and lifestyle
individuals could not make excessive profits
despised catholic church
had to be apart of church to vote
Virginia Company vs. Massachusetts Bay Company.
vc-profit, agriculture, tobacco, harsh hot climate with diseases
mbc-family and community development, structured government, ignored natives
Family in the American colonies vs. that in England.
Status dependent upon wealth, not the family you were born into
Indian attacks, and there was a lot of unfamiliar wildlife, animals and plants
Life was harsh, deaths, diseases, not enough supplies for expeditions.
Conditions in England that existed at the time of the American colonies.
England was too populated
No religious freedom
more economic opportunity in America
resources to trade in America
Economic systems of New England colonies vs. Southern colonies.
The New England Colonies: rocky soil and harsh winters that proved poor for agriculture. One large middle class
Had shipbuilding, fishing, and resources such as lumber, whales and furs.
Southern: relied on agricultural crops such as cotton, rice, indigo and tobacco. still had social classes.
Distinctive characteristics of the Middle Colonies.
Most diversity in Middle colonies.
English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French
diverse: Quakers, Mennonites, Lutherans, Dutch Calvinists, and Presbyterians
balance b/w new england and southern colonies
Rise of the tobacco economy on Settlers, Indians, Indentured Servants, and African slaves.
Moved Indians out of homelands to make room for tobacco crops
Indentured servants moved to America in promise of land, land not given, indentured servants quit, so…
African slaves brought over to work crops.
Increased American economy, hurt Indians and land, started slavery
Explain why slave trade arose in the colonies.
colonies began to increase in size, more land was needed causing rapid expansion into native lands.
As more land was acquired to farm, particularly for the crop tobacco, more field hands were needed.
Enslavement was also justified through the redefining of social structure.
the newly acquired fertile land and redefining of social structures led to the rise of the slave trade in the colonies.
Massachusetts, Maryland, and Virginia colonies.
Virginia: was an exercise of obtaining land and resources through brute force. get rich quick. As a result, plague, tribal assaults, rebellions, and mass starvations were the norm in the Virginia colony well into the mid 1700's.
Maryland: The forethought applied to site selection, agriculture, and open communication with neighboring tribes, and resulted in a much better outcome for the Maryland settlers.
Massachusetts’s colonists: were structured, organized, and seemed to have learned from the mistakes of previous attempts.
How did the Puritans react to opposition?
persecuted those who opposed and appeared as a threat towards them
theocratic society-ignored, shunned, disliked the opposers
maintained authority over New England, opposers were persecuted by the congregation, and trialed for treason.
Thomas Hooker's Fundamental Orders allow the "consent of the governed."
explains the process of electing an official to office.
This process requires those who are qualified to bring in a paper stating the name in which they choose to be Governor-people choose
gov. responsible for listening and taking their opinions into account.
By allowing them to voice their opinions, speak up for a wrongdoing, or any legality, the Government is giving consent to the governed