- The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people-all people, everywhere change with increasing age, and how and why they remain the same.
- The science of human development is empirical, meaning that it focuses on data, facts, observations, and experimentation.
- The emphasis on the interaction between people and within each person is highlighted by dynamic-systems theory, which stresses fluctuations and transitions.
- The approach that emphasizes the influence of the systems, or contexts, that support the developing person is URIE BRONFENBRENNER's ecological systems approach. The microsystem(immediate social setting), the exosystem(the local institutions such as school and church), the mcarosystem(cultural values, political processes, economic policies, and social conditions), the chronosystem, which emphasizes the importance of historical time on development. The mesosystem, involves systems, or parts of a single system.
Five Characteristics of Development
Multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic.
which refers to the continual change that occurs within each person and social group.
which even a tiny change in one system can have a profound effect on the other systems of development.
(SES) is determined by several overlapping varibles, including income, education, place of residence, and occupation.
is a collection of people who share certain attributes, such as ancestry, national orgin, religion, and/or language.
defined as a biological category, it is actually a social construction.
brain and body as well as changes in them and the social influences that guide them.
Thought processes, perceptual abilities, and language mastery, as well as the educational institutions that encourage them.
Emotions, personality, and interpersonal relationships with family, friends, and the wider community.
which are brain cells that respond to the observed actions of others. These neurons reflect gestures, mouth movements, and whole-body actions, may help explain some aspects of social organizations and how culture is transmitted.
The capability of change.
- FORMULATE A RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- DEVELOP A HYPOTHESIS
- TEST THE HYPOTHESIS
- DRAW CONCLUSIONS
- MAKE THE FINDINGS AVAILABLE
of research finding verifies the finding and leads researchers to more definitive and extensive conclusions. scientists use a different but related set of participants.
In designing research, scientists are concerned with four issues:
is a form observation that observes people in their natural enviornment or in a laboratory setting.
can reveal cause and effect relationships by allowing experimenters to observe whether a change in an independent varible affects some specific behavior, or dependent varible.
the participants who do not receive the treatment constitute the comparison group(control group)
is especially vulnerable to bias
data depends on the researchers insightfulness