provides a framework of ideas that permits a cohesive view of development, produces new hypotheses to test, generates discoveries, and offers practical guidance.
- which may be the comprehensives theories of tomorrow.
is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
which offer a comprehensive view of development
interprets human development in terms of inner drives and motives, many of which are irrational and unconscious
pleasure from the mouth during infancy
Pleasure form the anus during early childhood
pleasure from the genitalia later in the preschool years
the adolescent enters the fourth stage, the genital stage, which last throughout adulthood.
is the process of learning
Classical conditioning/ respondent conditioning
involves learning by association: The organism comes to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one.
Operant conditioning/instrumental conditioning
proposed by BF skinner, the individual learns that a particular behavior produces a particular consequence.
is any consequence that follows a behavior and makes the person or animal likely to repeat that behavior.
emphasizes the way in which people learn new behaviors by observing and imitating, or modeling, the behavior of other people they consider admirable, powerful, nurturing, or similar.
focuses on the structure and development of the individuals thought processes and their effect on his or hers attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
Jean Piaget: cognitive development
a state of mental balance achieved through the development of mental concepts that explain his of her experiences.
seeks to explain human development in terms of the guidance, support, and structure provided by cultures and societies.