Art 006 Midterm

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60 Cards. Created by jnh07 ().
 
Term  
Definition
W1. Aesthetics
Philosophy that deals with art. Primarily concerned with issues surrounding the creation, interpretation, and ultimate appreciation of works of art, and so it involves how the experience of such material is mediated through the individual sensitivity of the beholder, and the way the experience of it is shaped through presentation by cultural conventions such as the museum exhibition. 
In
1735, a German philosopher, Alexander Baumgarten, was the first to use the word "aesthetics", in a work which defined beauty as perfection and stressed such information as gathered through the senses. However, it was Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgment of 1790 that solidified the modern usage of the term, in which beauty became a subjective relation, not a property. As it concerns relatively recent media theory, Walter Benjamin and Marshall McLuhan discussed how the nature of such sense perception changes according to social circumstance. For instance, new kinds of media such as easily reproducible photography alter the function of works of art, as well as the way in which people view the world. 
Culture
'Way of Life'
It is the sum of the great ideas, as represented in the classic works of literature, painting, music and philosophy-the 'mass culture' of the age.
The everyday lives of the majority of 'ordinary people'.
Shared values/meanings of a group or of society.
Iconography
design or creation of images and more specifically to the historical study of art which aims at the identification, description and interpretation of the content of images 
example: Religious symbolism--> Christian works of art in the 19th century displaying scenes from the life of Jesus
Modernism
An art movement characterized by the deliberate departure from tradition and the use of innovative formsof expression that distinguish many styles in the arts and literature of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Modernism refers to this period's interest in:

  • new types of paints and other materials
  • expressing feelings, ideas, fantasies, and dreams instead of the visual world we otherwise see
  • creating abstractions, rather than representing what is real
  • a rejection of naturalistic color
  • a use of choppy, clearly visible brushstrokes
  • the acceptance of lineform, color, and process as valid subject matter by themselves
  • a requirement that the audience take a more active role as interpreter. Each viewer must observe carefully, and get information about the artist's intentions and environment, before forming judgments about the work.
Paul Cézanne (French, 1839-1906) is often called the "Father of Modernism." Cézanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism.
Meaning/ Interpretation
What is conveyed or signified by something; its sense or significance. An interpretation. However an artist may intend an artwork to impart meaning, and whatever an artist does to pack a work with meaning, in the end, it is the viewer who creates meaning in each and every image. Interpretation is a stage in the work of art criticism following the describing andanalyzing of an artwork, in which one identifies the work's expressive qualities, or the meaning, or the mood, or idea communicated to the viewer.
W2. Aura
Walter Benjamin German Jewish theorist captures the modernity. Associated with the 19th century notions of the artwork is thus lost, Benjamin argues, with the onset of photography. Attempted to imitate painting but very quickly and because of the nature of technology, photography took its own direction contributing to the destruction of all traditional of the fine arts. Decay of aura depends on two social circumstances desires of masses to bring things closer overcome uniqueness of everyday reality by accepting its reproduction Aura: the unique presence of a work of art of a historical or of a natural object.

Although this usage predates Walter Benjamins 1936 essay  "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" the use of the term in contemporary media studies is dominated by the specter of Benjamin and by his elaboration of the term here and in his work on the storyteller and Baudelair. 'Aura' refers to the authority held by the unique, original work, which under modernity is liquidated by the techniques of mass reproduction. This involvment with authenticity and reproduction squarely enconces Benjamin.
Sensibility
Physical feeling or sense perception at social generalization of certain person qualities a personal appropriation of certain social qualities a keyword to describe the human area in which artists worked and to which they appealed in the subsequent development of criticism based on distinctions between reason and emotion, sensibility was a preferred general word for an area of human response and judgement which could not be reduced to the emotional or emotive sensibility as an apparently neutral term in discussion of the sources of art without the difficult overtones of mind or the specializations of thought and feeling proved more durable than as a term of appeal or ratification for any particular response.  

refers to an acute perception of or responsiveness toward something, such as the emotions of another. This concept emerged in eighteenth-century Britain, and was closely associated with studies of sense perception as the means through which knowledge is gathered. It also became associated with sentimental moral philosophy. One of the first of such texts would be John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), where he says, "I conceive that Ideas in the Understanding, are coeval with Sensation; which is such an Impression or Motion, made in some part of the Body, as makes it be taken notice of in the Understanding."
At the same time, theorists asserted that individuals who had ultra-sensitive nerves would have keener senses, and thus be more aware of beauty and moral truth. Thus, while it was considered a physical and/or emotional fragility, sensibility was also widely perceived as a virtue.
Beauty

Representation
To stand for; symbolize. To depict or portray subjects a viewer may recognize as having a likeness; the opposite of abstraction. A representation is such a depiction.
Sublime
Immanuel Kant
Romanticism
An art movement andstyle that flourished in the early nineteenth century. It emphasized the emotions painted in a bold, dramatic manner. Romantic artists rejected the cool reasoning of classicism — the established art of the times — to paint pictures of nature in its untamed state, or other exotic settings filled with dramatic action, often with an emphasis on the past. Classicism wasnostalgic too, but Romantics were more emotional, usually melancholic, even melodramatically tragic. Paintings by members of the French Romantic school include those by Théodore Géricault (French, 1791-1824) and Eugène Delacroix (French, 1798-1863), filled with rich color, energetic brushwork, and dramatic and emotive subject matter. In England the Romantic tradition began with Henry Fuseli (Swiss-English, 1741-1825) and William Blake (1757-1827), and culminated with Joseph M. W. Turner (1775-1851) and John Constable (1776-1837). The German landscape painter Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840) producedimages of solitary figures placed in lonely settings amidst ruins, cemetaries, frozen, watery, or rocky wastes. And in Spain, Francisco Goya (1746-1828) depicted the horrors of war along with aristocratic portraits.
Kant's Aesthetic Judgement
1 disinterested
2 intrinsic beauty
3 purpose without purpose
4 universal
Gesamtkunstwerk
total work of art. whole. the complete product is great than some of its parts. 
Institutional Theory
art has to be accepted by the institution "artworld" in order to be known as a work of art
W3. Form/Content
Abstract/ Abstraction
Figuration
Real
Realism