Chapter 13

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41 Cards. Created by Alizabeth ().
Transcirption
 
Term  
Definition

Ribozyme

RNA molecule that can act as a biological Catalyst

Ribosomoal RNA (rRNA)

RNA molecule that is a structural component of the ribosome.

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

RNA molecule that carries genetic information for the amino acid sequence of a protein

Pre-Messenger RNA (pre-mRNA)

Eukaryotic RNA molecule that is modified after transcription ot become mRNA.

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

RNA molecule that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and transfers it to a growing polypeptide chain in translation.

Small Nuclear RNA (snRNA)

Small RNA molecule found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells; functions in the processing of pre-mRNA.

Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (snRNP)

Structure found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells that consists of small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and protein; functions in the processing of pre-mRNA.

Small Nucleolar RNA ( snoRNA)

Small RNA molecule found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells; functions in the processing of rRNA and in the assembly of ribosomes.

Small Cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA)

Small RNA molecule found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

MicroRNA (miRNA)

Small RNA molecule, typically 21 or 22 bp in length, produced by cleavage of double-stranded RNA arising from small hairpins within RNA that is mostly single stranded. The miRNAs combine with proteins to form a complex that binds (imperfectly) to mRNA molecules and inhibits their translation.

Small Interfering RNA (siRNA)

Single-stranded RNA molecule (usually 21 - 25 nucleotides in length) produced by the cleavage and processing of double-stranded RNA; binds to complementary sequences in mRNA and brings about the cleavage and degradation of the mRNA. Some siRNAs bind to complementary sequences in DNA and bring about their methylation.

Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)

Small RNA molecule belonging to a class named after Piwi proteins with which these molecules interact; similar to micro RNA and small interfering RNA and thought to have a role in the regulation of sperm development.

Template strand

The strand of DNA that is used as a template during transcription. The RNA synthesized is complementary and antiparallel to the template strand.

Nontemplate Strand

The DNA strand that is complementary to the template strand; not ordinarily used as a template during transcription.

Transcription Unit

Sequence of nucleotides in DNA that encodes a single RNA molecule, along with the sequences necessary for its transcription; normally contains a promoter, an RNA-coding sequence, and a terminator.

Promoter

DNA sequence to which the transcription apparatus binds so as to initiate transcription; indicates the direction of transcription, which of the two DNA strands is to be read as the template, and the starting point of transcription.

RNA-coding region

Sequence of DNA nucleotides that encodes an RNA molecule.

Terminator

Sequence of DNA nucleotides that causes the termination of transcription.

Ribonucleoside Triphosphate (rNTP)

Substrate of RNA synthesis; consists of ribose, a nitrogenous base, and three phosphates linked to the 5'-carbon atom of the ribose. In transcription, two of the phosphates are cleaved, producing an RNA nucleotide.

RNA polymerase

Enzyme that synthesizes RNA from a DNA template during transcription.