Humour Exam

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20 Cards. Created by Candice ().
Let's get ready to STUDY!
 
Term  
Definition
Mills 

"A Pleasure Working With You"
-importance of audience as working with you 
-Superiority: butt of joke, showing power, 
-women's humour as self-deprecatory to avoid this (ie: Rivers "my parent's wanted me dead) 
-Irony in her being the one in power but making fun of herself 
-comedian in power through jokes, audience in power through sanctioning what is funny through laughter
Incongruity: bringing two things together that shouldn't be
-logic of the absurd: doesn't make sense
Relief: humour as a relief valve
-useful for relieving taboos and things not considered normal in western society
ie: the vagina dropping
Bellig

"Embarrassment, Humour and the Social Order"
-The good and the bad laugh
Disciplinary Humour: -mocks people who break social rules
-aids in maintenance of those rules
-(Ie: a child being laughed at if they don't follow the rules, reinforced code of behaviour)
Ie: Laughing at ethnic accent because it's wrong english
-by explaining how it's wrong, people can rebel
Rebellious Humour
-outwardly mocks rules and rulers
-can be used to reinstate acceptable things and frame as rebellious 
Ie: KKK having jokes on site

Decomitment of Humour:
"It was a joke"


Willet, Willet and Sherman

"The Seriously Erotic Politics of Feminist Laughter"
History of Feminism and Humour 
-60s and 70s humour used against women
ie: Anchorman making jokes how to tame women in biggest movement
-women had a distrust of humour
Using the master's tool (comedy) to fuck shit up:
1. put forth women to be protected as a joke, but it got passed (YAY)
2. Roseanne Barr=working class feminist humour, fought against norms of family
3. Steinem "If men could menstruate" 
Fumerism: being funny and wanting to burn the house down
-anger that comes from marginalization
-fighting traditional expectations
ie: Cho: "I'm not a breeder...I have no maternal instinct...I ovulate sand"

Feminist Humour
unity of intersubjectivity : sharing a laugh as unity, not identity

Intersectionality:
-Sykes, "I didn't have to come out as Black" aligning with coming out as a lesbian

Normalizing Micro Practices: keeping socializations and expectations in place

Gilbert

"Humour, Power and Marginality"
-putting on a performance of female stand up comedy when an audience is there
-performance as rhetorical: persuasive, political
-functions as a cultural critique, proved by audiences laughter
-marginality means opposing prevailing social structures
-insider and outsider groups
Outsider lives in the borderlands
Borderlands : constructing hybrid identities, excluded from the dominant cultural order
-Borderland politics: gender, race, material resources, political power and culture
-Rhetorical Marginality: a choice to present as marginalized, performed at will, not visible
Sociological Marginality: what shows/what you can't hide, performed without your consent
AntiRhetorical: disavows itself-renounces intent even as it amuses audiences "I'm just kidding"
Commodification of Marginality:
-Women using comedy to gain money
-empower the performer economically
-ie: 

Perez

"Learning to make Racism Funny in the 'Color-blind' era"
-stand up comedy school, white and non-white students taught differently
-white: distance and denial strategies
-shift from overt racism (Jim Crow) to new racetalk (private ok, public racism, coded and covert)
History:
-Blackface was making fun of how they didn't know how to be American ** connection to Billig's disciplinary humour
-Authentic Inauthenticity: "I'm not a racist, it's just a joke", insuring distance, without it is REAL racism
In Class:
-non-white are taught to embrace racial stereotypes uncritically
-White taught to use strategies to push the hurtline (get more racist)
-Hurtline: is crossed when it becomes offensive to audience, aim to be edgy and near hurtline
-Strategies: opening with material that shows empathy (ie: "I know white people have done a lot of fucked up shit...) to engage with racist material after
-Dialectician: it's not racism if you're good enough at your impressions of different ethnic accents
-denies that non-whites can be racist
Resistance:
-Jessica refused to portray her mom as a stereotypical black woman
Hirji

"Somebody Going to Get Hurt Real Bad"
-What does Russell Peters comedy tell us about the limits of racialized discourse
-stereotyping about ethnic groups
-does give attention to difference: speaks to groups no one is speaking to
-Insider Perspective: racism is acceptable from non-whites since they can better understand experiences
-Peters claims no political nature, just for a laugh
-Comedy and TV often show the white bigot character
Ie: Archie Bunker: people actually thought more like him and supported his racist ideas, didn't see it as wrong
-The Reader: brings their own background, culture and experience to readings, comedy is about the combo of writer and reader
ie: Harold and Kumar
-going into a "black" neighbourhood and assuming they will be hostile but really they are the opposite of the stereotypes
-does this come across as anti-racist or does it teach racist steretypes?
Final Question:
Is comedy an ideal form for discussing racism?
Is it too easy to misinterpret?
Motapanyane

"Capitalizing on Multiculturalism"
-reading success of Russell Peters in Multicultural Canadian context
-3 fables of Multiculturalism in Canada:
1. Cultural Mosaic/Unity in Diversity
-equal representation instead of opportunities and access
-laughs at cultures equally
-depoliticizing difference
2. Real Canadians are White
-history of Canada=white colonialism
3. Commodification of Diversity
-does not politicize his humour because of his colour
-audience giving him money means he is profit driven
-cultural diversification as a tool of profit

Kunzle

"Is this a Joke?"
Case Study 3 Steps:
1. Interview about relationship between cultural identity and stand up act
2. film telling joke referring to cultural identity in some way
3. group of racially diverse actors re-telling joke
-what does your racial presentation mean to your performance?
-who has Insider perspective?
-Trickster Figure: 
1. acting out taboos
2. messenger of god/humans
3. inverting status quo
-he also lays between prey and predator, aim at surviving
-much like cultural minorities who tell jokes that reveal their ability to survive
-telling the darker truths of a group
-comedy as an alternate form of truth telling
-Permitted Disrespect: a form of teasing that reminds people they are equal, Aboriginal
-"Is it just me or when I see a Chinese person, I feel hungry?" 
-identity with Butt of joke or Teller of joke
-jokes changes ability to uphold or subvert status quo if it is a white woman or a chinese man
-Verfremdungseffekt or Alienation Effect:
make the audience unfamiliar, make strange the performance (roots in Chinese Theatre)
-allows critical thinking and reflection

Weaver

"Reverse Discourse in Black Comic Performance"
Reverse Discourse:
-seeking to reverse semantics of certain signs
-creating new meaning to racist signs
-can have a polysemic reading when it upholds racism
-compares American and British, emphasizes that British is more productive
-Czech's in concentration camps, telling jokes as a way to uphold their integrity
-Black entertainers using racist stereotypes, acting them out themselves, not embracing them as representing their lives
-Embodied Racism: based on biological hierarchy of racism
Example: Richard Pryor looking at civilized/savage elements of racism
-depicts white people as civilized but uptight, black people as natural but expressive
-emphasizes stereotype but with a twist
-eating dinner: white is mechanic, black is expressive
-sex: white people quiet, black loud
-based on Deviation (instead of Reversal)

Cultural Racism
-more so towards Asian groups
-black as well but less (we focus on black)
-making fun of cultural stereotypes
Example: Lenny Henry
-Monologue about how it's okay if a white person wants to join in on black culture, it keeps them off the streets, stealing hubcaps
-reversing black criminality stereotypes
-reversal (instead of deviation)
-polysemic: can be seen as too absurd

Russell

"Self-Deprecatory Humor and the Female Con"
-status of comedic performer grants permission for Deviant Behaviour
-men are usually granted this ability, women must prove themselves funny first
-Self Deprecatory Humour
-can be because of internalized social values
-allowing the audience to be superior "the surrender of power is an illusion" since they are on stage
-threat is defused if she is target of ridicule
Example: Phyllis Diller
-outfits, ugliness
-also proves the ridiculousness of society of which female standards she fails to meet
Roseanne Barr
-fails to meet female expectations
-shows class/gender
-Domestic Goddess is not angel in the house
-self definition
History:
-men initiators of humour, women responders, women laugh at men laughing at them
-Women on stage have power, challenges conventions
-Stand up is aggressive
-Sexualized: Mic as dick
-N America allow women in the Comedy arena but they have something to prove, they don't belong there
-"Doing" Comedy
-this is when women are not "Doing" female
-fucking the spheres, women in public
-Keepers of the Gate
-usually men dictate who can perform and who can't
Example: Johnny Carson
-"Women comedians are too aggressive for my taste"
-Preferring a man to laugh with
Gender Neutrality
-assimilating to the male-model
-scared of them looking at body difference instead of listening
-playing down femininity to be taken seriously
Humane Humor Rule
-women will not attack what people cannot change (race, body etc)
-instead attack the choices people make (mindless following of social expectations)
Mizejewski

"Pretty/Funny Body Politics"
pretty/funny sums up history of women in comedy
-Hitchen's article of why women aren't funny
-fought back with Stanley's article and photos of female comedians dressed to the nines
-how comedy carries feminism and critiques
2nd Wave: women in power, not housewives
-30 rock spoofs equality feminism "first girl to play football with boys"
-Sykes critiques the white do-gooder 
"You're black, I'm a liberal, we're practically twins!"
3rd Wave: girl power, queer and race
-Cho: LGBTQ discussions
-Admissions movie, Lily Tomlin playing radical mom, nod to genealogy of women's comedy
-women's bodies in comedy as a vehicle for feminism
-stand up, site of comic's body is one of disorder, fucking gender order
-Women in Romantic Comedies: playing comedy, not creating it, forcing them into marriage and traditional roles
-2 Traditions in Comedy that changes how funny looking women and men are viewed:
1. Clown as Sympathetic Outsider
-male archetype, more sympathy
-women witch, hag, women need men for financial so must look the part, no roles for bigger women
2. Tradition of the Grotesque Carnival
-the gross body is celebrated in comedy (male)
-women's bodies are already suspect, double scrutiny
-unruly female body
Pretty=White Hetero
-femininity is racialized
-Sykes critiques this
Ends with Fay: "We don't fucking care if you don't like it"
Deveau 

"Nikki Paine"
-uses ugliness as performance tactic
-self-deprecatory humour
-vulgar sexuality 
Example: guy touches her nose and claims she can feel it in her vagina
-Ca performs in states
-ugly as protection from sexual harassment
-sexuality as a shock
-may ghettoize her in the industry
Deveau

"Gender Parody in Canadian Sketch Comedy"
3 Different Canadian Sketch Comedy Acts
-deconstructs popular myths about masculinity and Canada
-myth of traditional Canadian masculinity: mountie, white, hetero, head of family
Heritage Minutes: mainstream cultural understanding, national identity
Speech Genres:
-News reports and fake news reports, same voice, tone, words, but changing it to discuss sex life
Loser Thesis:
-failed masculinity narrative
impossibility of masculinity myth, joke is hegemonic masculinity
1. Buddy Cole in Kids in the Hall
-playing up gay stereotypes
-was radical since absence but critiqued for being conservative expectations of gay man
-Camp: emphasis on the aesthetic
-marginalized double: gay and Canadian
-comparing marginal of Canadians in America to Gay in Heteronormative culture
2. Red Green in The Red Green Show
-failings of backwoods masculinity
-laughable
-his attempts at machismo fail
-gives awful advice, understands nothing about society (women as an example)
-women see it as the idiocy of man
-living in the past
-manly pursuits are like duct tape, they never last
3. Raj Binder in This Hour has 20 Minutes
-South Asian Immigrant learning life of Canada
-childish naivete about sex and sexuality
-Paki and Newfiew: Pewfie identity
-interviewing hockey players and making them the joke, with no voice to respond, usually making them seem gay
-Opposite of Cherry who LOOKS gay but acts like a bully and old time patriarch
-Raj is new masculinity
-appeals through HOckey Night in Ca which appeals to MOST Canadians, large exposure
Shouse and Oppliger

"Sarah is Magic"
-Rejects women's comedy
-makes a differentiation between her character and her
-if people bash her, it is a double standard since Louis C.K. does similar comedy
-Compares to Ellen: family, day time TV, safe humour
-feminism has allowed women to subvert humour 
-stand up is most masculine, not storytelling like sketch
-stand up is in/out punchline
-SS: punches down
-girliness but crass
-narcassistic
-The Aristocrats
-pushing it into dangerous territory discussing a famous father like comedian raping her
-breaking the humane rule
-elderly and children as butt of jokes
-no empathy
-horrifies feminists
Mizejewski 

"Ellen DeGenerous"
-first appeared in baggy tshirt, butch, was funny not pretty
-Carson allowed her on his show
-cast as the wholesome gay girl next door
-her comedy and talkshow are apolitical
-soft-butch comfortable presence
Critique: friendly 'poster-child' lesbianism depoliticizes homosexuality and turns it into personal not political
-hosted Emmy's post-911, Taliban joke
-homosexuality as patriotic
-us vs them
-proving that entertainment can help us heal
-niceness, being a good person
-dismisses nasty comedy as easy
-Face of Covergirl:
-pairing with Sofia Vergara: pretty vs funny
-skit where Ellen is the third bed in I Love Lucy's home
-Discursive Skirting
-jokes that depend on what's not there 
"For people like me...blondes"
Commodity Lesbian: Heterosexual, conservative
-flexes between subversive and commodity

Avila-Saavedra

"Nothing queer about queer television"
-tv emphasizes the private lives not political lives of gay people
-External Hegemonic Masculinity: patriarchal system where men dominate women
-Internal Hegemonic Masculinity: domination of white heterosexual men over other men
-Queer Sexism: assuming that gay males have same interests as other queer people and women
Subordinated Masculinity: absence of gay male identities in TV
-asexuality of homosexuality
Dominant Reading: if gays are represented, symbolizes equality and acceptance
Oppositional Reading: heteronormative, ideal masculinity

Looking at Will and Grace, It's All Relative and Queer Eye
Examples
1. grace always normalizes homosexuality with hetero interference (when she's in the middle of Will and Vince)
2. Fab 5 in Queer eye have no personal lives
3. Heteronormative: Elliot and Jack, elliot trying out for cheerleading, ridicules it, wants to play sports
Kelly

"(Ab)Original Stand-Up Comedy"
-aboriginal comedy is still new to Canada
-giving insight to the "Indian Experience"
-Talk about what is obvious about you first otherwise it distracting from your comedy
-can't instruct through comedy because people don't come to clubs to be enlightened
-because he does not present with feather,braids, leather, changes how indian is perceived
-balancing goofy and political
-non aggressive converting
Refuting or Reinforcing Stereotypes
-cheaper laughs when reinforcing stereotypes
-reinforces some stereotypes but chooses the more innocent ones
-Playing With instead of Playing Up
-if playing up proves redneck he's right
3 characteristics of Native Comedy
1. Teasing
-laughing at selves and experience
2. Self Deprecation
-teasing inward
-trickster falls if he's too proud
-don't take yourself too seriously
3. Build into Traditions of Oral Storytelling
-storytelling to give experience
Comedy of Coping:
-Humour as a response to troubling times
-often applies to Jewish comedy
-comic who is native vs. a native comic
-it's okay to only want to be native comic but he wishes to talk about other things
Taylor

"Whacking the Indigenous Funny Bone"
-Native humour crosses politically correct and incorrect areas
-laughter as healing, sense of survival
Ladder of Status:
-only punching up
-making fun of dominant culture
-can punch across or higher
-if it's a compliment, it's excusable (black men and their big penises)
-Racism is filled with lead, Comedy is filled with helium
-this means black people can't be racist against white people
-only people with power can oppress
Sphere of Knowledge
-what you've experienced and understand
-can only write about what you know
-if you are knowledgable, have gained access to experience the reserve as an example, you can tell these jokes
-a special visa to tell native jokes
Permitted Disrespected: accepted if you're teasing and allowed in the culture
-marginalized people can joke about mainstream because they're surrounded by it all the time
(like Canada and America)
Colletta 

"Postmodernity and the Gendered Uses of Political Satire"
-Using satire shows a change in women's comedy
-from offensive against patriarchal values to subversive assault on the way we know and understand the world
-Satire:
is an attack, a weapon used to comment through parody: inversion, exaggeration, contradiction, incongruity and juxtaposition
-for it to hit its mark, ppl must appreciate irony
-requires an audience that gets it
-most often women's comedic writing fueled by anger
-wanting to expose vice, folly and stupidity and correct them
-Polysemic reading:
-may seem to be an example of what it is critiquing
Pastiche: a neutral practice of mimicry, without ulterior motive, without laughter
-News TV and the Colbert Report
-assault on meaning
Example of Tina Fey and Amy Poehler
-skit challenges and reinscribes sexist ideas
-challenges media coverage on the female candidates : Palin as right female, clinton as masculine
-Clinton: she-devil, anti feminine, manly
-parody of Palin's speech, running side by side of actual speech
-received well
-proved Palin's inexperience and the stupidity of her being a candidate, lack of qualifications
-end: women's satire looks just like mens! ...
Rossing

"Deconstructing Postracialism"
Postrace hides history of racism
Stephen Colbert
-can affirm or subvert postrace discourses
-Satire saying race doesn't matter or exist
-comedy gives different angle to see
-Obama as a symbol of meritocracy, race doesn't matter
4 Problems with Post Racialism
1. Conflates Racism and Racialism
-not seeing outcomes of racial solidarity
-mentioning race means you're racist
2. Forgetting History: Racism doesn't exist anymore
-gets rid of race as a viable explanation for social injustices
3. Protects Whiteness as Privileged Subject Position Remains Unmarked
-hidden means no one can critique whiteness
-antiracialism whiteness by another name
4. White people Suffer as Victimes of Racial Disenfranchisement
-reverse racism ew.
-white as victim

Colbert
1. logically, I must be black because not even Obama is considered black?
-racial coding is revealed "which sunblock do you use?" in book
-standardized testing coded to privilege white people
2. Losing History
-the victimizing of white man is satirized
3. A privileged Voice
-allowed in venues people of color aren't
-Chocolate News as an example didn't make it far
-"People say I'm white and I don't see it but I'm on TV so it must be"
-hidden whiteness but accepts privilege
4. Victim of white person
Park upset that he's speaking for POC 
-Colbert says he's just an ally