Chem 5 Vocab

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18 Cards. Created by Alyson McElhinny ().
 
Term  
Definition

Wave-particle duality of nature

All particles have wave properties and all waves have particle properties

Momentum

the product of mass and velocity

Newtonian mechanics

the laws of mechanics applicable in the macroscopic world

Quantum mechanics

the laws of mechanics concerning the interaction of matter and radiation a the atomic and subatomic level

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

it is impossible to know exactly both the position and momentum of an electron at the same moment

Quantum number

a number describing a property of an electron in an atom

Probability

mathematical expression of "chance" or "odds"

Electron Cloud

the space effectively occupied by an electron in an atom

Principal quantum number

the quantum number designating energy level and electron cloud size

Sublevel

energy subdivision of an energy level

Orbital

the space that can be occupied by 0, 1, or 2 electrons with the same energy level, energy sublevel, and spacial orientation

Degenerate

having the same energy

Pauli exclusion principle

no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers

Lewis electron dot diagram

the representation of an atom, ion, or molecule in which an element symbol stands for the nucleus and all inner level electrons while dots stand for outer level electrons

Ground State

the lowest potential energy arrangement of electrons in an atom

Aufbau principle

-a strict set of rules used to predict ground state electron configurations -Based on where a single electron is placed, the lowest potential energy electron in an atom is found in the 1s sublevel. -Electrons will occupy a p-orbital only after the previous s-orbital is completely full -Electrons can begin to occupy energy levels with the next highest integer designation (e.g., 2 vs 1, 3 vs 2) only after all of the orbitals on the energy level below it are occupied.

Pauli exclusion principle

-describes the restriction on the placement of electrons into the same orbital -"If two electrons occupy the same orbital, they must have opposite spins

Hund's rule

-describes how electrons are distributed among orbitals of the same sublevel when there is more than one way to distribute them -electrons will pair up in an orbital only when all orbitals in the same sublevel have one electron -when single electrons occupy different orbitals of the same sublevel, they all have the same spin